Analisis Factor that Influnce the Change in Mental Health Status of Indonesian Health Care Worker Migrant in Japan
Author : Susiana Nugraha1, Yuko Hirano2
1Public Health Study Program, Jenderal A Yani, Cimahi, West Java
2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan
Since 2008, approximately 1000 Indonesian nurse and certified care worker candidates migrated to Japan, under Japan – Indonesia Economic Partnership Agreement (JI-EPA). Numerous studies in migration indicate that socio-cultural adjustment in migration linked with mental health condition, which may influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, changes in socio-cultural environment, degree of acceptance by the host community and condition of employment which may influence the change in mental health status before and after the migration. This study aims to measure the changes of mental health condition in pre- and post- migration and identify the predictors towards the changes.
Using purposive sampling method, the sixth batch of Indonesian EPA candidates the were selected as study participants. The baseline survey was conducted on June 2013, with total of 148 respondents, while the follow up survey was conducted on July 2014 through online, approximately one year after migration, with 92 respondents (62.1% respond rate). The questionnaire consist of socio-demographic status, reason for joining EPA program, GHQ-12 (General Health Questionnaire), SCAS (Sociocultural Adaptation Scale), MSPSS (Multidimensional Scale Perceive Social Support) and self-rated Japanese language proficiency. Statistical analysis including, t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis employed in this study.
The result showed that the prediction model significantly correlate with GHQ score change with R2 =.399 and F= 4.212 with p=.001. Direct correlation found in SCAS score change (ß =-.238), followed by gender (ß=.201), and economic condition in pre-migration (ß= -.200). This finding indicated the importance of developing system that helps Indonesian candidates in Japan, particularly for those who are females, originated from poor families, and having difficulties in adjusting a new culture.
Keyword: mental health, migration, nurse, certified car worker, candidates, JI-EPA
The Ethics of Care and Its Relevant to Wellbeing of Indonesian Migrant Workers in Indonesia Nawacita Era
Indonesia New Order State referred as strong state with strong government in New Order era until 1998 which brought reform. It followed by democratisation and production of many laws, including migrant workers.There has been ambivalence within this law which ignore the issue of well-being of migrant workers and their family. The Ethics of Care (EC) are missing. Ethics of care is evolving discipline and requires intra-disciplinary approach. The paper is an attempt to highlight the importance to understand the situation of migrant domestic workers in terms of a context-specific articulation of three regimes: gender regime, regime of welfare (wellbeing) which shape the care work (or reproductive work in feminist literature) and migration regime. The paper will examine further on, added that the absence of right protection of migrant domestic workers is an outcome of a gender regime that codifies domestic work as women’s work and naturalised it duty as to count it as work therefore contest mainstream morality. Consequently, the visibility of Domestic workers’ rights depends on public discourse with regard to welfare and well - being. The context of the paper is Indonesia under Nawacita regime which refers to current government. This essay is an attempt to explore and seek answers to what extend there is a significant progress on migrant workers well-being under the current Indonesian state if the framework of protection is only focus on field of law. TheEC approach challenges law oriented approach and aware the problems of ‘being essentialist’, its dynamic and critics. The EC isan inclusive in its approach, recognizing relationship, context and politic. The wellbeing of Indonesia migrant workers should be understood as practice. One of the major issue to address it and tackled this problem of well-being of migrant workers is the transformation of power relations between migrant workers and relevant actors/agency.
Keywords: ethics of care, well-being, nawacita and migrant workers, feminists
Do International Labour Migration Really Help Migrant Households Moving Out from Poverty?: Evidence from East Java
Devanto Shasta Pratomo
Brawijaya University, Indonesia
University of Wollongong, Australia
This paper examines the sustainability of returning international migrants who remain at home country with the intention of not going back to overseas moving out from poverty. This study uses cross-sectional primary data of September and October, 2015 comprising of: 840 return migrant households of around 10% of migrant stocks from Malang district in East Java in 2014/2015; and 840 current migrants of around 10% of same migrant stock as a control group (BNP2TKI, 2013). Although we found that remittances reduce the probability of households at home living in poverty, this study conclude that returning migrants will not be better off for very long, and will almost certainly return to poverty after a period of time. Major limitation is that the paper focuses only on the financial capital contributed to the welfare of return migrants, not incorporating the possible human capital, business skills, or attitude that migrants get from staying overseas.
Keywords: Return Migrants, Poverty, Remittances, Sustainability
Female Indonesian Migrant Worker and Their Capacity to Change the World
(Study at Banyumas and Wonosobo Central Java)
Tyas Retno Wulan
Center for Gender, Children and Services, Research and Social Services Institute (LPPM) JenderalSoedirman University (UNSOED)
Working abroad has been a promising option for most Indonesian people. Nowadays, approximately 6, 5 million of Indonesian migrant workers (IMW) has been recorded making a living abroad. Most of them are women (later on to be called Female Indonesian Worker/FIW ) from rural area with low education level. They work as domestic worker and have sent economic remittance as much as 107,15 trillion in 2014. Even they give huge contribution for economic development and are called “pahlawan devisa” or “economic heroes.” Unfortunately,a patriarchic model of family in Indonesia, in the end, does not contribute much to a significant change of their status and bargaining position as a woman in the society. Previous study done by Daulay; Fariani (2001); Kustini (2002); Astuti (2005); Rajab (2006); Wulan (2010) proved that condition. The situation is, then, worsened by the stigma which puts Female Indonesian Worker/FIW as a “second class citizen” and it becomes a common thing in the society that they are identified as an ex “housemaid.” The naming raises the stigma that FIW cannot change their life.FIW actually has huge potencies to be empowered in regard to all of their economic and social remittances while working abroad.It is proved when some FIWs succeed in managing themselvesthattheycanbeleadersof social changein the community. Research done by Wulan(2010; 2013) showed some FIWwhomanaged to becomeleadersin theentrepreneurial,head of the village (kepala desa), teacher and lecturer, author anddefender ofother migrant workers. The struggle of Erwiana, FIW who was definedasone of the 100influential peoplein the world byTimes magazinein 2014, alsoproves that FIWcan change theworld. Therefore,this study is aimed toidentify factorsthatcouldcauseFIWsocial transformationin society and what kind of policy relevance which can cultivate FIW’s economic and social remmitances so they can gain benefits from migration process include protect their children and family even empower their community.
Cultural Explanations for Acceptance of Informality?
A Research Agenda for Exploring Indonesian Migrant Workers’ Expectations of Labour Regulation
Dr Petra Mahy
School of Law, SOAS, University of London
In practice, Indonesia’s formal labour laws have limited application, and the majority (perhaps 70%) of Indonesia’s workers are employed informally. Such informal employment practices are often arranged according to patron-client relations and ideals of 'kekeluargaan' (family-ness). Overseas, Indonesian transnational migrant workers also often find themselves in precarious, low-status and informally (or illegally) regulated employment situations.
My empirical research data on restaurant workers in different parts of Indonesia show that internal migrant workers often express particular cultural ideas of the importance of ‘merantau’ (circular migration) and ‘cari pengalaman’ (seeking experience) as reasons for their acceptance of informality in their work arrangements. Workers often emphasise their own agency and point to the intended temporary nature of their work and their longer-term goals of gaining enough skills and capital to become self-employed. Some recent anthropological research among internal migrant workers in Indonesia also note similar attitudes (e.g. Lindquist 2009). At the same time other research contradictorily points to more passive attitudes among migrant workers towards the risks of migration and employment away from home. Bastides’ (2015) research among Indonesian overseas migrant workers explained their acceptance of risk and sometimes abuse at the hands of their employer through emphasis on the ideas of nasib or takdir (fate) and of one’s destiny ultimately lying in the hands of God. Again, my own research with migrant sex workers in Kalimantan found similar ideas towards employment and health protection.
Recognising that internal and overseas migration for Indonesian workers is linked with individual migrants often switching between the two options throughout their lifetime, this paper seeks to lay a conceptual framework and methodology for research on Indonesian cultural attitudes towards labour regulation and acceptance of informality in employment. To what extent do Indonesian migrant workers take their cultural expectations and employment experiences with them when they travel overseas for work? On their return, do they still hold the same ideas or have these changed to greater expectations of formality in the domestic Indonesian labour market? How can we explain the apparent contradictions in cultural attitudes between the agency-claiming ‘cari pengalaman’ and the more passive ‘nasib/takdir’ discourse? More theoretically, how can we understand the legal consciousness of Indonesian migrant workers and their attitudes towards labour law?
Bastide, Loïs (2015) ‘Faith and Uncertainty: Migrants’ Journeys between Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore,’ Health, Risk and Society 17(3-4): 226-245
Lindquist, Johan (2009) The Anxieties of Mobility: Migration and Tourism in the Indonesian Borderlands. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
HARNESSING THE BENEFITS OF MANDATORY INSURANCE POLICIES FOR MIGRANTS
In the first half of this year the insurance industry collected more than USD 3.5 million fromIndonesian migrant workers under a mandatory government scheme that should provide protection from financial losses incurred during the migration process. The insurance policy offers compensation for a range of risks, including failure by agents to come good on their promise of overseas employment,need of medical treatment for work related accidents andearly termination of employment contracts. In practice, however, the large majority of migrant workers never submit claims. In part, this is because agents often hide the fact that migrants even have policies, especially after receiving kickbacks from insurers. Another major factor is that migrants are limited in their ability to do so without support.
This paper demonstrates that there is a service provision gap in existing efforts to protect the interests of migrant workers. It outlines theinsurance scheme’s potential to mitigate financial losses and other risks associated with labour migration under the government programme. This section also considers practices that undermine that objective. Next, the paper discusses state and non-state activities that aim to improve migrant workers’ access to compensation. It identifies a space in which migrant workers require further institutional support and proposes a model whereby non-government organizations can harness state resources as part of an attempt to fill the gap and thereby help maximize the benefits of migration for work.
The Protection of Irregular Migrant Workers in Accessing Health Care System
Learning from Dutch Health Care System for Irregular Indonesian migrant workers
It is an obligatory to have insurance in the Netherlands, not only for all residents but also for migrants who come to the Netherlands. Even though it’s an obligatory, we still can find people living in the Netherlands without any insurance, some of them are irregular workers from Indonesia. It is difficult for irregular citizens to get a social security number and insurance, even though so, health care is still possible to be accessed.
De ZorginstituutNederlands (ZIN) or the National health care institute in the Netherlands provides a support for the irregular citizens to access health care. Such access is implemented based on Dutch regulation which stated that every person in the Netherlands is entitled to health care. The irregular migrants can go to every family doctor when they are sick and to midwife when they are pregnant, also they can be referred to the selected hospital for further treatment. For the payment of the health care treatment’s bills, ZIN provides also a support which the irregular migrants can pay only for some amounts or get free of charge if they cannot afford the bills.
Dutch system, as one of the best health care system in Europe, could be referred as role model for other countries’ health care system in Southeast Asia. The article will specifically explain and discuss on Dutch health care system for Indonesian irregular migrant workers.
TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATION: SOCIAL REMITTANCE FROM HONGKONG
FOR JAVANESE WOMEN AT EAST JAVA, INDONESIA
Lecturer at Sociology Departement, Universitas Negeri Malang
Transnational Indonesian worker is dynamics and fluctuating on 3 years. Javanese women have moved from villages and small towns from east Java Province, Indonesia to Hongkong as domestic worker prior and employer on manufacture sector. this article points on Javanese women cones from East Java who took part on domestic worker on Hongkong as the destination.
Transnational migrants, described as Javanese women work, life and express their interest in several context rather than in a single nation-state. They maintenance and also upgrade their skill in Singapore. Capturing ‘space’ concept on Transnational migration, One of established concept of ‘space’ is territory defined by public boundaries. Moreover, Georg Simmel's approach to spatial analysis, especially In "The Sociology of Space" was continuing to express "social geometry." Simmel would attempt to catalog as the spatial reality of social life.
Social remittances are the ideas, behaviors, identities, and social capital that migrants export to their home. They differ from global cultural flows in that it is possible to identify the channels through which they are disseminated and the determinants of their impact.
Drawning from larger study of paid domestic worker in Hongkong comes from East Java province, Indonesia using qualitative perspective. Research process was based primarily on non-random sampling using snowball system. Observing least 30 Javanese Women followed by in-depth interview.
Transnational movement involved working in the houses of their foreign employers. Distance from home allowed women the opportunity to transform themselves both physically and metaphorically.
Keyword: Transnational Migration, Social Remittance, Javanese women, Hongkong
Migrant Domestic Workers: Need More Protection, Not Restriction
Since March 2015 until now, in the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, Migrant CARE has diligently monitors the steadiness of the flow of domestic workers migration to Middle Eastern destinations during Ramadhan seasons. As the matter of fact, at some point it has shown some significant surges.
The monitoring program conducted by Migrant Care initially aims to observe Migrant Domestic Workers (MDWs) accessibility to communication devices as a means to combat alienation (isolation) in their working places in the Middle East. Migrant CARE has added the monitoring of impact of the permanent cessation of MDW mobility to the Middle East as a result of the Minister of Labor Decree Num. 260 dated 1st of June 2015 concerning permanent cessation of MDWs placement in the Middle East. Some of the items to be monitored in regards of the Minister of Labour Affairs Decree are the flow of MDWs mobility, obedience, and tactics used by MDWs to avoid hindrance in reaching their country of destination.
Until May 2016, our monitoring program has discovered that during the period of permanent cessation Migrant CARE successfully met and interviewed some 2.644 MDWs. As many as 1.020 MDWs were first time work and 1.624 others held re-entry or returning to work status. Their main destinations are the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, UEA, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, and a small percentage were departing for Malaysia. This survey only shows the tip of an iceberg phenomena. BNP2TKI in their own data, recorded that during the period of January to May 2016 some 8.714 individuals underwent placement as MDWs to the Middle East.
This empirical data shows that the Middle East remains as the favourite working destination for Indonesian MDWs despite the ban imposed by the Ministry of Labor. Indonesian Central Bank (BI) data regarding remittance originated from Indonesian MDWs overseas consolidates previous empirical facts. In mid 2015, in spite of Government Permanent Cessation Policy, remittance from the Middle East to Indonesia was $ US 3,522 billion, significantly higher than the rest of South East Asia region, US $ 2,603 billion. In the first quarter of 2016, Middle East region has contributed US $ 878 million in remittance. Still larger than US $ 680 million arrived from South East Asia.
In conclusion, this survey shown that protectionism policy in the form of total working restriction for Indonesian MDWs is utterly not recommended. Restriction Policy is clearly a violation of human rights to work and to move freely. This policy will also raise the likelihood for the Indonesian MDWs to become the victim of human trafficking practices and thus criminalized as undocumented migrant labor. Protection policy for Migrant Domestic Workers must be solely dedicated to guarantee the rights to work and mobility in the form of diplomatic protection services improvements. Better training quality for future migrant workers (including basic rights awareness), and finally, potential illegal profit taking and exploitation by migrant workers recruitment agency and its supporting elements must be dealt with the strictest of supervision and law enforcement.
Social Networks and Migration: Myanmar Town in Thailand
Sirima Thongsawang, PhD.
60 Moo.7 Romklao Rd. Minburi Bangkok 10510 THAILAND
Kasem Bundit University
There are intensive cross-border flows of people especially workers from Myanmar to Thailand. One of the most popular destinations for migrant workers in Thailand is Samut Sakhon. Samut Sakhon is one of the central provinces of Thailand where there is a heavy concentration of fishing industries. The paper selects Samut Sakhon as a case study to demonstrate how dynamic capitalism, globalisation together with transnationalism cause significant changes to migrants’ livelihoods. The paper purposes to analyse social networks in the province. The analysis of local social networks and the structure of migrants’ relationships can be explored in order to justify the occurrence of migrants’ communities and social capital. This paper aims to clarify the role of key social networks in the province and their multiplexity with related parties. The results show the dialectic relationship between social network, mobility, ethnicity, identity and political allegiance. Social networks function as the voice of disadvantaged groups to illustrate the problems in the province. The role of social networks is also an ethnic benchmark for those who desire to maintain their national identity in the country of settlement. The involvement of social networks with at least two countries also refers to the support of transnational activities at the international level, bringing about transnational social capital. The paper argues that the migration of Myanmar workers has created endless interactions-both formal and informal- between people in Thailand and Myanmar where the state actors cannot entirely control reciprocal actions.
Social network, Myanmar migrant workers, migration, Thailand
Including Migrant Learners in Education: Voices of Primary School Pupils in England
Institute of Childhood and Education, Leeds Trinity University, Brownberrie Lane, Horsforth, Leeds, LS18 5HD, United Kingdom
This article considers preliminary findings from a small-scale qualitative study that is currently underway (2015—2016). The study explores how inclusion of new and recent migrant children in education is understood and enacted by primary school learners and their teachers in England, a country that has seen significant immigration from a range of countries. The paper focuses on responses from pupilsand, given the scope of the M2B workshop, includes findings from among Indonesian primary school pupils who have migrated to England.
Children are often at the forefront of working out the meaning and implication of being a new arrival in a different country. As pupils in the state school system, they are in an environment that emphasises “integration” – adapting to new rules, making new friends, and possibly learning a new language. However, little research is focused on how children feel about this new environment and the extent to which they feel included within it. Therefore, this article offers the findings from research that maintains such a focus, drawing on participants’ views that emerged through the use ofthe creative visual methods ofpicturebooks and photography. The article gives an overview of key issues in migration and education that will be relevant to Indonesian migrants, including migrant children's rights and entitlements within education in England. It also illustrates theoretical development that is underway in terms of a framework that combines notions of inclusion and migration. More specifically, informed by the findings, it upholds and elaborates this framework that views inclusion as involving participation and educational access with regard to access to the curriculum and as well as to the classroom culture. It closes by sharing some emerging guidelines for inclusion of migrant children within schools.
Education, migration, creative methods, voice
The Profile of Caregiver and Problems of Children Left Behind (CLB) Among Indonesian Migrant Worker Families in Banyumas Regency, Central Java
Eri Wahyuningsih, S.KED., M.KES
Staff in Center Of Researc For Gender, Children And Community Service, Jenderal Soedirman University
The National Agency for Placement and Protection of Indonesian Workers (BNP2TKI) in 2012 states that each year about 7 million Indonesian migrant workers (IMWs) was abroad. Eighty percent of them (5.6 million) are women of childbearing age (18-40 years). From this condition can be estimated at about 11.2 million children in Indonesia are left by their mothers. During January-April 2016, BNP2TKI states as IMWs number is as many as 78. 284 profiles in general are women (62%), married (52%) and highest educational is senior highschool (SMP) (40.03%). It is a consideration to put the IMW families become vulnerable to problems in children due to the lack of one or both parents’ affection during they’re working abroad, and childcare is done by a single parent or other caregiver.
To describe the profile of the children left behind (CLB) among the IMWs’ families, the problem found in CLB and the way they handle the problems.
The study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in three districts in Banyumas Regency, Central Java, namely: Kedung Banteng, Pekuncen and Kalibagor. One village is choosen from each districts which are enclaves of IMWs. Data obtained from 78 CLB’s caregivers who were interviewed using a questionnaire.
Data from the three villages showed the caregiver profile as: dominated by women, aged between 26-79 years of education between elementary and senior highschool, and most of it is the spouse of IMWs. While the CLB’s profile is mostly male, aged between 15 months - 34 years, and most are still in elementary school. The problem mostly found among CLB are the dissobedient, overbearing, not eating, and being sick for over 3 days. To handle those problems it is applied of scold the children, give what children asked for, persuade children to eat, and bring the sick children to health services. It was concluded that CLB are taken care by the closest family members, and the main problem was the dissobedient. It is suggested to the society in IMW’s families environment to create an enabling atmosphere for the child to grow and develop optimally.
The Role Of ‘Genuine’ Migrant Workers Organization To Improve
The Migrant Workers And Family Life’s
Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto
The paper discussed the role of ‘genuine’ migrant workers organization to improve the migrant workers and family’s lives. Unlike common migrant workers organization, PaguyubanSeruniBanyumas is one of genuine migrant workers organization. It was established by ex-migrants workers and all of the Paguyuban Seruni Banyumas members are (ex) migrant workers, migrant workers and their family. Paguyuban Seruni Banyumas is managed by members and is funded by their self. They are not dependent with funding. This study is a qualitative research which applied in-depth interview with the members of PaguyubanSeruni. The interviews focus on how PaguyubanSeruni has helped the migrant workers and family in dealing various migrant-related problems. Interestingly, to improve migrants workers life’s, PaguyubanSeruni has three ways : doing advocacy, making business and building network.
Challenges, Difficulties, and Problem Solving: Parenting Practices in Transnational Marriages in Taiwan
Intan Islamia1, Hsiu-Chen Lin2
1Asia University Taiwan, email@example.com
2Asia University Taiwan, firstname.lastname@example.org
The number of transnational marriages in Taiwan has increased rapidly since 1990s. Specifically, the second largest numbers of foreign spouses in Taiwan are from Indonesia. This research aimed to explore challenges and difficulties experienced by Indonesian mothers in their transnational marriages with Taiwanese men. Using qualitative design, this research was conducted during September 2014 – July 2015 and was based on an in-depth interview method using semi-structured and open-ended guidelines. Participants were generated through purposive sampling which based on certain criteria. This research found that they experienced challenges and difficulties and can be classified in terms of during early childhood period, as a working mothers, religion, education, and cultural identity. This research argued that all participants had their own values, parenting practices, and way to solve problems which were shaped by their own cultural background and Taiwanese culture.
Keyword: parenting, challenges, difficulties, transnational marriages, Taiwan.
UTILIZATION REMITTANCE FOR INVESTING ON PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES
I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya
Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta
Migrant workers’ remittance can be invested on the more activities of the productive economy. Currently, the remittance is used to pay debt of placement. In addition, the remittances are more widely used for consumption activities such as improving house and other consumption activities. Based on this phenomenon, how is the remittance used for productive activity. It is the best way to improve migrant workers’ welfare. This paper aims to describe the potential of economic activities that can be developed by the migrant workers. There are activities such as opening a new business is included in the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs. These activities are very good at this time because the Indonesian government makes policies to help finance SMEs in the People Business Credit Program (Kredit Usaha Rakyat). The government will subsidize the interest of the credit. The program can help the migrant workers to start new business because they get a very cheap rate of 9% for the credit. In addition, migrant workers can also use the remittance to be invested in financial instruments or financial assets. These assets can be in the form of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and more.
Key Words: Remittance, Productive Activity, SMEs, and Financial Instruments.
Entrepreneurship Training Evaluation Effectiveness To Indonesian Migrant Workers In Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
Mega Pajriati1 Lindawati Kartika2 Dahlia Zawawi3
1Department Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Dramaga Bogor 16680, email email@example.com
2Department Management, Faculty of Economics and management, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kampus Dramaga Bogor 16680, email firstname.lastname@example.org
3Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, email email@example.com
“Edukasi Untuk Bangsa” (EUB) is an organization of entrepreneurial training for Indonesian migrant Workers in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The purpose of entrepreneurship training is to provide motivation and insight of the participants, as well as providing knowledge related to the development of productive economy covering entrepreneurship, investment and other productive activities by utilizing income they earned while working abroad, their potential and surrounding environment. Assessing the effectiveness of training programme is the most important place it is done to observe how well the goals have been achieved. This research is aimed to 1) Analyze the implementation of the training organized by the EUB. 2) Evaluate the entrepreneurship training at the reaction, learning, behavior, and result levels. This research was conducted to migrant worker who have attended the training program. In its entirety, this discourse used primary sources (observation, interview, and questionnaire) and secondary sources (literature review). This research utilizes descriptive analysis method, with Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS 16.0 software in processing and analyzing the data. Using the four level Kirkpatrick evaluation model as the basis of analysis. The results show that entrepreneurship training for the migrant workers is effective from reaction level to result level. Entrepreneurs based on Indonesian migrant workers can be formed through three phases (growth, development, mature) involving ABGC (Academics, business, government, community).
Evaluation of effectiveness, Entrepreneurship Training, Indonesian Migrant Workers
Language and Power: Hegelian Strategies to Self-determination and Social Justice
Dr Mahlet (“Milly”) ZIMETA
I offer a model of empowerment and self-determination, based on (1) Hegel’s master-slave dialectic; (2) Paulo Freire’s educational praxis; and (3) philosophy of language.According to Hegel, individuals or communities in circumstantial disadvantage (“the enslaved”) develop valuable skills and strengths as a response to their situation – skills and strengths that are not developed by peers in relative material advantage (“the master”). According to Hegel, the master’s reliance or exploitation of the slave becomes dependence over time and in this way the slave becomes as powerful – or more powerful – than the master. As this point approaches, the relationship can be re-negotiated.Freire adapts the Hegelian dialectic and applies it to the practice of education: for Freire, teacher and student are equal and in dialogue; knowledge is not static and possessed by the (“superior”) teacher to be “given” to the (“inferior”) student: instead the student’s perspective is educationally valuable to the teacher – with knowledge co-created between them. What both these models allow is a critical perspective on traditional power dynamics, and a tool by which individuals or communities in a situation of material oppression or disadvantage can reappraise their value, autonomy, agency, and courses of action available to them.Finally I demonstrate how rhetorical schema can shape thought and self-narrative, and can create biases and blind-spots that only come to light when we change our conceptual language. I draw on the example of black existentialism as a model of the pathway from critical self-determination through reclaiming and reorienting language, to economic empowerment and social justice.
Unfree Labour and Migrant Workers Welfare
Dr Philip Roberts, PhD
Political Economy (University of Sydney), Fellow of the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice, University of Nottingham
Recent scandals have linked unfree labour in South East Asia to consumption in the UK high street. The use of forced labour in Thailand’s fishing industry to supply prawns to UK supermarkets has sparked new interest in how unfree labour is incorporated into global supply chains. In particular, this scandal has increased focus on the risk factors associated with unfree labour, especially migration. Equally, it has led academics to question existing regimes used to regulate global supply chains, particularly ‘social audit’ approaches. The purpose of this paper is to set out a program of study of Indonesian migration as it intersects with the garment industry which global supply chains connect to the UK high street. This paper will explore how economic reforms may drive patterns of both internal and external migration, and how these forms of migration contribute to unfree labour in Indonesia. This is with particular reference to labour market reforms, but also how broader restructuring exposes Indonesian labour to shocks from global economic crisis. It also examines the practical means of studying unfree labour in migrant populations, using interviews, surveys, and ethnographic field research. By interrogating the linkages between migration and unfree labour using this framework, I will expose how interventions at different scales can help protect migrant populations in Indonesia. I intend this paper to be a discussion piece as a prelude to starting field research in Indonesia, not a statement of a finalized plan. I therefore welcome debate on practicalities of analysis, conducting ethnographic work in country, and establishing regulatory approaches to cover the intersection of migration and unfree labour in Indonesia.
When Men are left behind: Gender Relations in Indonesian Migration
Andy Scott Chang
Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley
firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Over the past four decades, labor migration has become a pivotal livelihood strategy for the peasantry in East Java, Indonesia. The labor-displacement effects of the Green Revolution, along with the expansion of dynamic capitalist sectors outside agrarian villages, have facilitated the exodus of peasant sons and daughters. From the 1970s to the 1980s, however, it was young men who partook in long-distance migration, leaving behind their kin to engage in agricultural production. By the late 1990s, rural men’s material fortunes had reversed. Rising demand for migrant women’s labor in the Middle East and East Asia, coupled with declining opportunities for men to work in neighboring Malaysia, had led to the growing mobility of women at the expense of men. As of 2014, in the Ponorogo Regency, East Java—one of Indonesia’s largest centers of outmigration—more than 80% of the contract migrants recorded by the Bureau of Manpower and Transmigration were women working as caregivers and maids in Taiwan and Hong Kong. The transition from male to female migration has catalyzed a profound transformation in gender roles in sending communities, reshaping gender ideals about what it means to be an honorable or ignoble man, and contributing to rural women’s empowerment.
Based on seven months of multi-sited ethnographic research in two international employment training centers and four migrant-sending villages in Ponorogo from October 2014 to May 2015, I argue that these shifting terrains of gendered mobility must be situated in the context of structural changes in the rural, national, and international economies that have produced uneven employment opportunities for peasants along gender lines. Furthermore, I attend to the diverse ways in which immobile men are coping with their declining privilege in the work sphere in the context of migrant women’s growing power as breadwinners and “foreign-exchange heroes” for the nation. Departing from the scholarly portrayal ofleft-behind men as “failed patriarchs”—wife-beating, wasteful, and adulterous husbands—I contend that such men have responded to women’s empowerment in the international labor market by engaging in productive labor at home as entrepreneurs, wage earners, and responsible fathers. Instead of seeing female gains and male losses as zero-sum, I argue that men may help deepen female empowerment by contributing to their children’s everyday needs while women work abroad.
Media Coverage of Rumah Peduli Anak Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (RPA TKI):
A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Representations of RPA TKI, Indonesian Government, Female Migrant Workers and Their ‘Unwanted’ Children
Adriana Rahajeng Mintarsih, M.Si
English Study Program, Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia
There have been ongoing discussions of and research on female migrant workers, especially migrant domestic workers, but it seems that the phenomenon of ‘unwanted’ children who are born as a result of rape and unplanned pregnancy does not gain much attention. In Indonesia, as a response to the cases of migrant worker’s babies left at Soekarno Hatta International Airport, independent institutions Yayasan Putri Cikeas and Gerakan Nasional Kepedulian Sosial (GNKS) in cooperation with Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan TKI (BNP2TKI) established Rumah Peduli Anak Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (RPA TKI) which acts as a temporary shelter for these children in January 2009. Indonesian TV stations have made a lot of coverage of this shelter, and some videos can be found easily on YouTube. This coverage has brought some positive impacts to it. Through its positive representation of RPA TKI, people are made aware of this shelter and the ‘unwanted’ children there. It then leads to a great amount of donation and people’s interest to adopt them. Moreover, some coverage also calls for government’s attention. Although it is informative and critical for some, using feminist critical discourse analysis, this research found that it is problematical in some ways. First, some videos where government officials appear create an illusion of government’s participation and/or attention. Second, it often revictimizes female migrant workers who unwillingly become the mothers of the ‘unwanted’ children.
Keywords: RPA TKI, media coverage, feminist critical discourse analysis (CDA), female migrant workers, and ‘unwanted’ children
Preventive Strategy Design of Illegal Indonesian Migrant Workers In Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Hilyah Fachria 1*, Lindawati Kartika2, Lailawati Mohd Salleh3
1Student of Department Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
2Lecturer of Department Management, Faculty of Economics and Management, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
3Lecturer of Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Indonesia is constituting one of the largest countries exporting migrant workers overseas. However, the majority of those migrant workers are working illegally where their rights and live are not well worth. The purpose of this research study is to design prevention strategy of illegal Indonesian migrant workers to Malaysia. The data being used in this study are primary data and secondary data. The primary data is acquired from interviews and questionnaires. Secondary data were acquired from literature studies, result of the assessment report, as well as legislation and regulation. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, The House Model and a Pairwise Comparison. The result of this research study indicated that the strategy became main priority is at the stage of departure i.e. (1) The closure of lines for illegal Indonesian migrant workers outgoing, and (2) To increase synergy between Indonesia and Malaysia government to support each other in the regulation and eligible documents for Indonesian migrant workers.
Keywords: Illegal Indonesian Migrant Workers, Soft System Methodology, The House Model
Human Trafficking, Corruption, and Glocal Organised Crime ‘within’ Indonesian Border
Dominggus Elcid Li, Rosna Bernadetha, Lia Wetangterah, Paul Sinlaeloe
Human trafficking within Indonesia is a very serious problem since Indonesia has no internal mechanism to control its internal migration so thatthe criminal network freely operates within it. What makes the things even worst is that the counter trafficking unit does not exist in Indonesia, and institutional corruption in state institutions has functioned as pull factor andextended the damage to the victims of trafficking.
This research highlights the impact of labour market liberalisationseeing from Indonesian periphery. It focuses on micro social issue and covers how the poorin West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) Province are trafficked for low skilled and labour intensive job.
Recent case in Medan, North Sumatra (Indonesia) which is a combination of human trafficking and forced labourin the bird nest factory shows that victims are neglected, even to the point of death.This paper looks at: (i)how human trafficking is practiced by the organised crime network who is involved by private entity and state apparatus, and (ii) how the state institutions are paralysed and the apparatus become predators to its most vulnerable citizens, (iii) how the private agency involved in human trafficking.
Key words: slavery, human trafficking, forced labour, organised crime, internal migration, decentralisation, post Suharto, bird nest, West Timor
Potentials of Women in Improving the Protection of Indonesian Women Migrant Workers:
Lessons from the National and Grassroot levels
International Relations Deptement, Parahyangan Catholic University
The Poster presents the results of the research which identified the potentials of women in improving the protection of indonesian women migrant workers. The first research focused on the national level and the second research focused on the grassroot level. This poster will compare the efforts made at these two levels, particularly the opportunities and challenges.
Counting Grassroots Women’s Labor in Empowerment of Indonesian Women Migrant Workers: Feminist Approaches
Elisabeth Dewi and Sylvia Yazid
Parahyangan Centre for International Studies
firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
This poster is based on a research that looked into the efforts of grassroots women as one of the stakeholders in conducting the empowerment of Indonesian women migrant workers. It was designed based on the assumptions that an identification of the potentials of women at grassroots level may positively contribute to the efforts of finding solutions for the problems faced by women migrant workers. Rather than being seen merely as victims, women should be seen as actors who can actively participate in addressing the problems. This poster provides efforts made by a number of Indonesian women who are working together in promoting the protection and empowerment of Indonesian women migrant workers, in the grassroots level. The focus is on how these women perceive the extent to which their efforts have been able to influence the empowerment process locally. It also includes how the women responded to the challenges and opportunities that they encounter as part of their learning process. The stories for this poster was gathered through in-depth interviews with three prominent woman figures who are sharing their capacity building experiences through formal education and straightforward democratization. While confirming that as actors outside the government these women have made efforts to empower themselves to be able to empower others, this poster showcases that the actual impact of their efforts is highly determined by their position as women.
Empower the Migrant Community in Online Communities: Breaking the Barrier of Isolation
Stevanus Wisnu Wijaya
Department of Informatics, Sanata Dharma University.
School of Information Systems, Queensland University of Technology(QUT), Australia
Jason Watson, Christine Bruce
School of Information Systems, Queensland University of Technology(QUT), Australia
This paper aims to discuss online practices which contribute to empower Indonesian migrant domestic workers community. Indonesian migrant domestic workers communities were selected as research participants in this virtual ethngraphy study. These communities are perceived vulnerable due to exploitation, and isolation from recruitment processes, in the work place and after reunite with the home country. Literature on online communities, Indonesian migrant domestic workers and empowerment theory have been explored and reviewed. Data were gathered from two Indonesian migrant domestic workers online communities. Data then analysed with a qualitative content analysis. Result shows that online communities enable migrant domestic workers to improve the awareness of the community power to make changes and the capability of the community to take actions towards changes. These practices enable them to enhance their capabilities to engage with external parties.
Key words: Empowerment, Migrant Domestic Workers, Online Communities, Virtual Ethnography.
Return Migration of Nurses: A Concept Analysis
Faculty of Nursing, Airlangga University, Surabaya
This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of return migration on nurses.
Return of skilled migrants is not a new phenomenon and registered nurses are active player in this pattern flow. Return migration is a complex, challenging, and can be scrutinized from different outlook. Analysis of return migration is needed to address the complexity and challenge of international nurses’ migration.
Design. Concept analysis.
Data sources. Google Scholar, Pubmed, Proquest, EBSCO, JSTOR and Web of Science databases were searched without timeframe. Twenty-one articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included.
Walker and Avant's method was utilized to conduct the concept analysis.
Return migration of nurses can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of migrant nurse, return as human right, resource mobilization, reintegration and return itineraries. Antecedents of return migration include the economic, social, geographical, political, family and life cycle that comprise the cause and effect framework. With regards to return migration, the consequences are beneficial or detrimental depend on the point of view migrant nurses, source country, receiving country, nursing profession and country health system.
This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and uses of return migration in nurses’ migration. It recognizes the centrality of return as a component in migration stage that needs a comprehensive approach.
Keywords: concept analysis, return migration, nurse migration, migrant nurse
Is the sector of Malaysian bioenergy truly sustainable?
A study of the motivations and experiences of Indonesian migrant workers in Malaysia
Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University
This study looks into the phenomenon of migrant employment within the sector of renewable energy generation in Malaysia. A substantial number of the sector’s operations rely upon the low-skilled workforce, the majority of which comes from Indonesia and Bangladesh. While the sector of bioenergy is largely considered ‘sustainable’ due to the important role it plays in the global carbon footprint mitigation, this consideration should be taken with caution when a more holistic perspective is adopted in analysis. The well-being of the sector’s migrant employees and their families at home should be taken into account in order to accurately assess the ‘true’ level of sustainability attributed to renewable energy generation in the country. This pilot project aims to better understand the motivations of Indonesian migrant workers to seek employment within the sector of Malaysian bioenergy. It also strives to analyse the experiences of Indonesian employees and their families with an ultimate goal to provide an insight into the ‘true’ sustainability of the sector. The study outcome can reinforce the policy-making and managerial practices within the sector of Malaysian bioenergy by developing recommendations on how to improve the migrant workers’ subjective well-being and the well-being of their families in Indonesia.
What Works Wellbeing for Indonesian Migrants (WWW4IM)
Hong T. M. Bui
Strategy and Management, University of Bath
This poster proposes an idea for collaborative research between UK and Indonesian researchers in this workshop. I propose to investigate well-being both as a dependent and as an independent variable in the context of the three main themes below, aiming to identify drivers and consequences of wellbeing.
The priority areas in theme (1) are the effect employment has on the wellbeing of different social groups (e.g. women, older workers), how sector and industry characteristics affect wellbeing and how wellbeing is driven by individual attributes such as personality traits. Priority areas in theme (2) are effects of human resource practices on wellbeing and the effect of wellbeing on workplace behaviours. Priority areas in theme (3) are the analysis of a lasting impact of different types of education and the types of learning that drive subjective wellbeing.
Multi-methodologies will be employed to synthesize the existing available evidence in relation to the interactions of work, learning and wellbeing and to translate the evidence into a language and products that are easily accessible for practitioners, policy makers, non-academic stakeholders, and the wider society.